Why Did God Create Jupiter?

first_imgDr. Jerry Bergman has taught biology, genetics, chemistry, biochemistry, anthropology, geology, and microbiology at several colleges and universities including for over 40 years at Bowling Green State University, Medical College of Ohio where he was a research associate in experimental pathology, and The University of Toledo. He is a graduate of the Medical College of Ohio, Wayne State University in Detroit, the University of Toledo, and Bowling Green State University. He has over 1,300 publications in 12 languages and 40 books and monographs. His books and textbooks that include chapters that he authored, are in over 1,500 college libraries in 27 countries. So far over 80,000 copies of the 40 books and monographs that he has authored or co-authored are in print. For more articles by Dr Bergman, see his Author Profile.(Visited 682 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Some Evolutionists Explain Our Solar System’s Unique Arrangement by Mimicking Velikovsky’s Ideasby Jerry Bergman, PhDA cover story in New Scientist on May 25 discusses the Juno spacecraft, an “audacious mission circling Jupiter’s poles” that arrived in 2016 and is schedule to orbit Jupiter until 2021. In this article, writers Leah Crane and Richard Webb give a remarkable role to the largest planet that has worked out for our benefit. They state that Jupiter is “the biggest and perhaps most important planet in the solar system…. And might even ultimately be responsible for life on the earth.”[1] To understand why, we must look at the solar system as a functioning unit, and not as a haphazard grouping of planets independently operating separately. The study of the solar system as a system has increasingly supported the conclusion that life is not about just being in the “habitable zone,” but is intricately connected with the arrangement of all the other planets.The most well-documented example of interdependence is the research indicating that our moon is required for life on Earth. There are many reasons for this. For example—unlike at Venus and Mars, which both lack a large moon—our moon’s gravitational influence helps to ensure that Earth’s spin axis is stable at an inclination of 23.5 degrees with respect to the plane of its orbit. This results in seasons. As a result, our climate variations have remained very modest throughout Earth’s history. Stabilization of the Earth’s rotation on its axis by the moon allows for a far more stable, life-friendly climate. The Earth’s tilt, called its obliquity, has not varied by much more than a few degrees for most of Earth’s recent history. Obliquity stability is necessary for climate stability, thus for human life.[2]In 1994, Jupiter disrupted Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and then absorbed the impacts of all 23 fragments, which would have devastated Earth.Jupiter as a Protective ShieldOne theory is Jupiter, as is believed true of all of the planets, especially Saturn, Neptune and Uranus, helps to protect the Earth from damage caused by asteroids, meteorites and comets. Astrobiologist Kevin Grazier disputes this notion. “It has been widely reported that Jupiter has a profound role in shielding the terrestrial planets from comet impacts in the solar system, ….(a phenomenon often referred to as the ‘Jupiter as shield’ concept).”[3] Grazier’s own computer simulation has challenged this common assumption, but has noted another reason for Jupiter’s importance to Earth. He simulated the behavior of10,000 particles in each of the jovian inter-planet gaps for the cases of full-mass and embryo planets for up to 100 My. The results of these simulations predict a number of phenomena that not only discount the “Jupiter as shield” concept, they also predict that in a Solar System like ours, large gas giants like Saturn and Jupiter had a different, and potentially even more important, role … delivering the volatile-laden material required for the formation of life.[4]Simulation studies are problematic because they make many assumptions when designing the study, such as the need to consider all relevant conditions in the simulation that could influence the outcome.Although Webb and Crane in the New Scientist article do not mention the theory that Jupiter protects Earth from impacts, they agree with Grazier that the planet may have been responsible for sending water to the Earth.[5] The Earth is known as the water planet because it contains far more liquid water than any other planet in our solar system. Nonetheless, many observers still prefer the shield theory for many reasons. One study of the planets finds that, although asteroids, meteorites and comets regularly crash into most of the planets, comparatively few large objects have struck the Earth since its creation. The ‘Jupiter as shield’ explanation argues that most objects that would otherwise strike the Earth are pulled away from the path that allows them to reach the Earth, deflecting meteorites and other large objects.[6]As Crane and Webb correctly note, Jupiter is enormous, 140,000 kilometers across, or close to 11 times Earth’s diameter. It is not only the largest planet in our solar system, but, they claim, may even be one of the largest planets in the known universe that is very distant from its star. Although most extrasolar planets discovered so far tend to be gas giants, they are located very close to their star, unlike Jupiter. We must keep in mind that we have only explored a few planets around a few nearby stars, not the entire universe.[7] Furthermore, if the “Jupiter as shield” theory is correct, some of Jupiter’s 79 satellites contribute to the effect. One of them is larger than the planet Mercury (Ganymede) and two others,  larger than the Earth’s moon (Callisto and Io). As a result, even more objects are deflected or absorbed, causing them to miss colliding with the Earth.Additionally, if the “Jupiter as shield” theory is valid, the entire massive set of bodies in the outer solar system plays a significant role in protecting the Earth. This supports Webb and Crane’s observation that Jupiter’s “origin and early history are of huge significance not just for understanding it, but also for the wider history of the solar system.” [8] The moon’s surface area is only seven percent of the Earth’s surface area, and its effect is not as large as Jupiter’s, but because it is much closer to the Earth, its effect is not, by any means, insignificant.[9]In short, if the shield theory is valid, the Earth is protected from meteorites, asteroids and comets by all of the five planets on the Earth’s far side (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune), plus the over 100  moons circling these planets, as well as the two planets on the side of the Earth facing the Sun (Mercury and Venus).  The charting of the orbits of the planets for decades, indicates that the Earth is in a protected zone, reducing enormously the number of potential extraterrestrial collisions.Sun and planet sizes to scale. Jupiter outweighs all the other planets combined. Credit: Lunar and Planetary Institute.Crane and Webb Had to Mention the Church’s “Persecution” of GalileoWhen discussing astronomy, it seems mandatory to mention the persecution of Galileo. The New Scientist article is no exception. They write when Galileo “discovered four moons circling Jupiter… they were the first bodies conclusively shown to be orbiting a planet other than Earth. That … helped get Galileo into a lot of trouble with the religious authorities of his day.[10]Read our biography of Galileo for more facts about the “Galileo affair.”The “Galileo affair,” allegedly perpetrated by the Catholic Church, may not only be the most quoted example of “persecution” of science by religion, but one of the most misunderstood events in history. University of New Mexico History of science professor Timothy Moy correctly observed thatUnfortunately, Galileo’s trouble with the Church later became a popular archetype for the historical relationship between science and religion. Nothing could be further from the truth. For most of the medieval and Renaissance periods, and even stretching into the eighteenth century Enlightenment, the primary supporter of research and teaching in the sciences was the Roman Catholic Church…. the Church, in the aftermath of the Galileo affair, continued to promote research into evidence for heliocentrism, even to the point of turning entire cathedrals into giant pin-hole cameras to measure the apparent diameter of the solar disk at various times of the year.[11]Galileo’s main problem, what Professor Santilana called his “fatal mistake,” was his “rash indiscretion, his insistence on throwing open to the common people, by writing in the vernacular, a question which was far from being settled.”[12] This year another book was published on this topic, this time by Fulbright scholar Dr. Michael Keas (PhD in the history of science from the University of Oklahoma). In chapter 5 of Unbelievable: 7 Myths About the History and Future of Science and Religion, Keas quotes claims of persecution by leading atheists, showing their claims irresponsibly repeat common beliefs that do not comport with history.[13]Yet, in spite of numerous scholarly studies completed by leading scholars and science historians, the myth of Galileo persists, as is illustrated by the misleading claim in New Scientist quoted above.[14] To many, watching the transit of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter across Jupiter’s surface with a telescope is a very lovely sight to scientists and religious people alike. Such evidence first witnessed by Galileo does not threaten their faith. The transit of Venus, a much rarer event, is both delightful and scientifically informative.[15]The Solar System Designed for Life on EarthThe existing design of the solar system, with rocky planets near the sun and gas giants far away, is ideal for life to thrive on Earth. As far as is known, it is unique anywhere else in the universe. Thus, the Earth appears to occupy a privileged place in the solar system and, as far as known, in the universe as well.[16] The question is, how did it get that way? In attempting to account for the origin of Jupiter and the other planets, Crane and Webb, excluding intelligent design, decided the “only way we can explain the size and disruption of the planets as they now are is if they formed somewhere else and migrated to their current positions. To move whole worlds around you need something to give them a gravitational shove.”[17] This something, they conclude, could only have been the other planets.The Ghost of Velikovsky ReturnsAlthough Crane and Webb do not mention him for good reasons, they presented an idea eerily similar to one of the most derided theories in astronomy— that proposed by Immanuel Velikovsky.[18] Velikovsky’s most well-known book Worlds in Collision was first published in 1950. The book postulates that around the 15th century B.C., the modern planet Venus was ejected from Jupiter and passed near the Earth, ending up where it is today. On its trip to where it is today, Venus altered Earth’s orbit and axis, causing innumerable catastrophes. The details of Crane and Webb’s theory are very different than Velikovsky’s account, of course, but the basic idea is similar. It invokes “Jupiter’s gravitational bulldozing” planets into different positions from where they formed. They call this idea astronomers’ “best guess” for how the planets moved around, producing the solar system existing today.Velikovsky’s idea of the solar system’s formation was treated so poorly in the 1950s and 1960s that the leading American science organization, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, agreed to hold a session on Worlds in Collision, in which Velikovsky was able to take part.[19] Nonetheless, most all of the papers presented at the session were very negative towards his catastrophic views. Velikovsky’s work is frequently cited as a canonical example of pseudoscience.[20] Yet, a team of leading cosmologists at a conference in Nice, France proposed a catastrophic theory of planet formation that is now widely accepted, including drastic rearrangements of planets that led to our present solar system. It reminds one of Velikovsky’s basic theory![21] What goes around comes around.ConclusionsThe Galileo mission (1989-2003) orbited Jupiter and sent a probe into the atmosphere, but raised even more questions.The main findings of the space probes Pioneer 11 and Voyagers 1 and 2, which gave scientists their first looks at the outer solar system, is that the more we learn about the universe, the more we realize “we are learning a lot about Jupiter … but it’s raising even more questions … [and showing there are] real mysteries still to be revealed….” This is a common reaction in most areas of science, especially astronomy where most of what scientists do is observe and discover, not run repeatable lab experiments like biochemists can. It is becoming clearer as research progresses that the intelligent design explanation, accepted for most of Western history, fits the facts better than the problematic materialistic explanations, which depend on luck.References[1] Leah Crane and Richard Webb. 2019. “Hey, Big Splendour!” New Scientist. 242(3231):34-38, May 25-31. The online version was titled “By Jupiter! How the solar system’s giant made Earth ripe for life.” [2] Ward, Peter and Donald Browenlee. 2000. Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe. New York, NY: Copernicus Books.[3] Grazier, Kevin R. 2016. Jupiter: Cosmic Jekyll and Hyde. Astrobiology  16(1):1-20. January.[4] Grazier, 2016. Abstract. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/ast.2015.1321.[5] Crane and Webb, 2019, p. 37.[6] DeYoung, Don and John Whitcomb. 2003. Our Created Moon: Earth’s Fascinating Neighbor. Green Forest, AR: Master Books, p. 82.[7] Crane and Webb, 2019, p. 35.[8] Crane and Webb, 2019, p. 36.[9] Gonzalez, Guillermo and Jay Richards. 2004. The Privileged Planet. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, p. 115.[10]  Crane and Webb, 2019, p. 35.[11]  Moy, Timothy. 2001. “Science, Religion, and the Galileo Affair” Skeptical Inquirer. 25(5):43-49, p. 45.[12] Santillana, Giorgie de. 1955. The Crime of Galileo. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press,  p. 18.[13] Keas, Michael. 2019. Unbelievable: 7 Myths About the History and Future of Science and Religion. Wilmington, DE: Intercollegiate Studies Institute. Chapter 5 Gagging Galileo.[14] Ronald Numbers (Editor). 2009. Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths About Science and Religion. Cambridge,   MA: Harvard University Press. Myth 8, pp. 68-78.[15] Lomb, Nick. 2011. Transit of Venus. 1631 to the Present. New York, NY: The Experiment, pp. 46-47.[16]  Gonzalez and Richards, 2004.[17] Crane and Webb, 2019, p. 36.[18] Bergman, Jerry. 2014. “Immanuel Velikovsky and the Worlds in Collision.” Investigator. No. 154, pp. 41-45, 25. January.[19] Sagan, Carl. 1977. “An Analysis of Worlds in Collision” in Scientists Confront Velikovsky, Ed. by Donald Goldsmith. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.[20] Gordin, Michael. 2012. The Pseudoscience Wars: Immanuel Velikovsky and the Birth of the Modern Fringe. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.[21] Crane and Webb, 2019, p. 37.last_img read more

Ohio Crop Progress — July 23, 2018

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Most areas of the State are still very dry despite spotty rain events, according to Cheryl Turner, State Statistician, USDA, NASS, Ohio Field Office. There were 5.6 days suitable for fieldwork in Ohio during the week ending July 22. There were reports of spotty rain events last week but most areas are still dry. The dry weather did provide ample opportunity to harvest hay, wheat, and oats and make herbicide and fungicide applications. Range and pasture conditions were showing early signs of stress from lack of needed rains. Lower temperatures helped to decrease crop stress from scarce rains.Click here to see the full reportlast_img read more

Wheat harvest jumps from last week, lags behind a year ago

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest There was abundant field activity last week as temperatures remained above normal and rainfall was very light, according to Cheryl Turner, State Statistician, USDA NASS, Ohio Field Office. There were a season high 5.7 days suitable for fieldwork during the week ending July 14.Clear skies allowed farmers to spray herbicides and side dress fields where necessary. Corn leaves were rolling on sandy soils and in hot, dry areas of the State. Soybean and corn conditions improved slightly from the prior week as the rains slowed and fields dried out. Reports of corn and soybean replanting meant varying levels of plant progress within some fields and overall delayed maturity.Wheat combines rolled quickly, as wheat harvested progress was up 35 percentage points from the prior week. Oat condition improved slightly from the prior week as 42 percent of the crop was rated in good to excellent condition. The hot, dry weather was good for making hay last week. First cuttings of hay have mostly been taken off of the fields and second cuttings were well underway, although all hay progress was still behind the 5-year averages. Pasture and range condition improved slightly to 44 percent good to excellent condition.You can read the full report here.last_img read more

Google Open Sources Two Projects, Contributes to Eclipse Foundation

first_imgA Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Back in August, Google acquired Instantiations, the maker of a suite of Java development tools for Google Web Toolkit (GWT). And in September, Google rebranded and relaunched those tools and made the Java Eclipse available for free as part of the GWT. That move has been well-received, and as a result Google announced today that it is open sourcing two of the projects through the Eclipse Foundation.Google is donating the source code and the IP for WindowBuilder, the leading Eclipse Java GUI Designer, and CodePro Profiler, an analytics tool that identifies code performance issues. Specifically, the donation includes the WindowBuilder Engine and designers for SWT and Swing – code and IP that Google says is valued at more than $5 million. The Eclipse Foundation calls this “this is clearly a significant new project announcement, and very good news for Java developers using Eclipse.” According to Ian Skerreitt, the foundation’s director of marketing, Java is its most popular IDE, with over 65% of those working with Eclipse being Java developers.Today’s announcement is good news for those Java developers, following what seems to be a long string of not-so-goodnews in terms of open source and Java. For its part, Google says that it hopes that today’s move will help grow the open source community around Eclipse. It will also provide the opportunity for other companies to offer enterprise support around the products, something that Google hasn’t focused on. Related Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…center_img Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting audrey watters Tags:#Google#NYT#web last_img read more

A Domain By Any Other Name Would Not Rank As Well

first_img Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack SEO Topics: Originally published Jun 22, 2007 11:55:00 AM, updated October 01 2019 JULIET:         ‘Tis but thy name that is my enemy;         Thou art thyself, though not a Montague.         What’s Montague? it is nor hand, nor foot,         Nor arm, nor face, nor any other part         Belonging to a man. O, be some other name!         What’s in a name? That which we call a rose         By any other name would smell as sweet;         So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call’d,         Retain that dear perfection which he owes         Without that title. Romeo, doff thy name,         And for that name which is no part of thee         Take all myself. I will leave to Juliet any thoughts about how appealing Romeo would be if he had a different name.  But what I can tell you is that your domain name has a big effect on your ranking in Google and other search engines.  Here are some of the reasons to look into buying a premium domain name.1) Look bigger than you are.  Even a small business can look big on the Internet if you have the right domain name.  If you are a local marketing firm, you look like you know what you are doing if your URL is www. LeadMarketing .com instead of www. MyCambridgeMarketing-Online .net  And, usually a premium domain is far less expensive than many other marketing activities.2) Get more traffic.  With the right domain name, you can get more traffic to your website in two ways.  First, some people will just type in your domain into the browser address bar and see what happens.  If you own the domain, your website will be what comes up!  Second, if you have good keywords in your domain, it is much easier to get ranked on the first page of search results, driving more traffic to your website.  Google and other search engines assume that if you have keywords for a search in your domain, then that website is a good search result that has relevant content, and that means you get ranked higher.3) Upstage your competition.  What better way to stand out from your competition than to have a website with the best URL for your industry?  How would you feel if your competitor all a sudden ended up with the perfect domain name?4) Acquire an asset.  Most marketing expenses are impossible to recover any portion of the cost.  The nice thing about premium domains is that they are an asset you can always sell later.  And recently, most domains have been increasing in value, so you might even end up making money on your investment.  Of course, past performance is no guarantee of future results.Now that we have covered some of the ways that a premium domain can benefit your business, let’s discuss how you can evaluate a domain to decide how valuable it will be.  Here are some of the things to think about so you can choose the best name for your company.1) Generic keywords are good.  Most businesses really can’t spend the money to build a brand around their company name, this is especially true for small businesses.  So, if you can buy www. computers .com, you should do it, since it will be better for you than www. gateway .com.2) Avoid punctuation and extraneous words.  Adding a dash into a URL makes it harder to type and look less professional, so avoid it if possible.  Also, adding generic words like “my” or “best” or “the” or “online” to the start or end of your URL is not a good idea.  They don’t add any value.3) Try to get a .com domain.  Unless you are a nonprofit or outside the US, most people assume your business will have a .com domain extension and will usually have trouble remembering your URL if it ends in .net or something else.  Domains ending in .com have always been in higher demand and command higher prices than any others.Now that you understand the value in having a premium domain and how to pick a good domain, maybe you should think about buying one?  If you are interested in buying a premium domain, there are a number of services to do so.  At HubSpot we have used BuyDomains.com before and we have found BuyDomains to be a great place to buy a premium domain.Have you bought a premium domain?  Have you found it to be a useful tool for your business?  Leave a comment below and let me know. last_img read more

Planning Your Online Video Strategy for 2009 – B2B Marketing

first_img Originally published Jan 22, 2009 9:20:00 AM, updated March 21 2013 Webinar: Marketing in a Recession Don’t forget to share this post! I had a chance to join a MITX panel on “Planning Your Online Video Strategy for 2009”.  It was a pretty good panel wit folks from the media, agencies, analysts and companies.  Of course, I represented the B2B marketing point of view where using video is a component of a healthy inbound marketing program.  As you probably know, at HubSpot we use a lot of video: viral videos, a live video podcast, an iTunes channel, product demo videos, interviews on our blog, and some pretty popular marketing webinars.Here was the full panel lineup:Will Richmond, Editor/Publisher, VideoNuzeMatt Kaplan, Chief Strategy Officer, PermissionTVMichael Manning, Director of Product Development, Boston.comJames L. McQuivey, Ph.D., Vice President and Principal Analyst, ForresterAndrea Millett, Vice President and Account Director, Media Contacts… and me!  (Mike Volpe, VP of Inbound Marketing, HubSpot)The video is courtesy of Permission TV, who also sponsored the panel. Want to learn effective ways for generating leads and marketing in a economic downturn?Download the free webinar for tips and tricks to drive more visitors and leads to your website! Video Marketing Topics:last_img read more

How to Crowdsource Videos for Your Business [Marketing Cast]

center_img Videos present a great way to create remarkable content and expose your business to more PR opportunities. But coming up with creative ideas and engaging in video production can be time-consuming or expensive. That is where crowdsourced videos come in to offer the perfect solution for a clever and well-budgeted clip.In this episode of the Marketing Cast David Meerman Scott shares tips about crowdsourcing videos for your business. Watch the video below to hear his insights! Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlacklast_img read more